Definitions and descriptions of terms associated with cast stone production, specification and usage are given below:

Process of applying a solution of hydrochloric or muriatic acid to the exposed surface of cast stone in order to remove the laitance from the aggregates, thus achieving a fine grained finish which simulates natural cut stone.

Metal device used for securing cast stone to a rigid structure.

The sharp edge at the junction of two adjacent surfaces of a cast stone unit.

Masonry constructed of stones to a rectangular shape and laid in courses, as opposed to rubble work which is uncoursed masonry of random shaped stones.

Concrete, normally sand, gravel, and grey cement: used for the unexposed portion of cast stone.

The joint which the stone sits on. It is normally filled with mortar.

Cast stone unit intended to protect the top of a wall, balustrade or parapet as well as adding aesthetic value to the wall, but not necessarily designed to shed rainwater clear of the surfaces beneath.

Any material manufactured with aggregate and a cementitious binder that is intended to resemble the appearance of, and be used in a similar way, to quarried stone. Cast stone is either homogenous throughout or consists of a facing mix and backing mix. The British Standard BS 1217 applies to Cast Stone items, but cast stone products manufactured by an UKCSA Full Member to the Association’s stringent requirements and specification are supplied to a standard in excess of the BS 1217 requirements.

The permeability test carried out to assess water absorption of dry-cast cast stone is refreed to as the Capillary Absorption Test (CAT).

CE Mark is a logo and Declaration of Conformity which is affixed by the manufacturer to a product to indicate that the product conforms to certain requirements in harmonised European Standards. It is not possible to CE Mark cast stone to the British Standard for Cast Stone BS 1217 as it is not a harmonised European Standard.

An early form of artificial stone, manufactured with a ceramic base.

A process of (or material used for) tinting the hue of cast stone. It is normally achieved through the use of aggregates or inorganic iron oxide pigments.

Cast stone unit intended to protect the top of a wall, balustrade or parapet as well as adding aesthetic value to the wall, and designed to shed rainwater clear of the surfaces beneath.

A series of hairline cracks, normally less than one millimetre in depth, in the outer surface of a concrete product. Crazing does not normally affect the life of a concrete product and is only of aesthetic consideration.

Curing is the process of hydrating the Portland Cement in cast stone to a specified age or compressive strength

Round (usually non-corrosive) metal pin used in anchoring and aligning cast stone.

Brickwork or stonework flanking a wall opening or adjacent to a corner, treated distinctly from the remainder of the wall face.

Continuous groove cut or cast into the bottom of the projecting edge of cast stone in order to disrupt the path of the water to the wall below

Also known as lime bloom, may appear as a white deposit covering part or all of the surface of products containing cement. It is a temporary, naturally occurring phenomenon that usually disappears as a result of normal weathering. Read more about acceptability of efflorescence

Any face which is not bedded or otherwise protected in the works (e.g. with mortar or bitumen). Visual Faces are Exposed Faces but not necessarily vice versa.

Materials used for both homogenous cast stone and, when a backing mix is used, the visual face of cast stone

wet cast cast manufacturing process incorporating alkali-resistant extruded fibre reinforcement. Allows thin and lightweight sections to be produced.

Aggregates passing 6mm sieve

Final exposed surface of cast stone. It is independent of colour, but it will control the colour intensity. Acid etching is a cast stone finish.

A horizontal joint completely filled with mortar.

Mortar of pouring consistency.

A unit spanning an opening but not necessarily intended to carry the weight of the construction above

A single continuous mix throughout the section of the unit.

A metal device cast into a unit normally used for anchoring or handling

The vertical side of a door or window frame or opening

Gap between masonry units filled with mortar or backer rod and sealant

Scheme The jointing pattern shown on contract documents.

A metal device embedded into the cast stone for the purpose of lifting and/or anchoring.

(or Lintol) A unit spanning an opening and intended to carry the weight of the construction above.

A walling block manufactured to look like natural stone, less than 650mm long and not containing reinforcement or fixings. Standard BS EN 771-5 applies to Manufactured Stone items.

Of, say, a column when it is made of a single block of stone.

A blend of cement, lime, sand and water which is applied at a pliable consistency to bond masonry units.

A form in which cast stone is shaped. It can be constructed from wood, rubber, fibreglass and other materials.

The UKCSA Operating Standard lists the minimum manufacturing processes and control requirements that all manufacturing members must comply with as a condition of membership.

A concrete product not poured in place.

The standard introduced by UKCSA to which all members comply. The inclusion of a Quality Mark label on cast stone is the UKCSA manufacturing member’s confirmation that the cast stone supplied complies with all of the UKCSA Quality Mark Scheme.

Masonry blocks placed to give emphasis to the corner of a building.

A deformed steel bar used for reinforcing cast stone.

A continuous groove cut or cast into a cast stone unit.

Rebar, basalt fibre composite reinforcing bars, or alkali-resistant extruded fibre placed into a cast stone unit during the manufacturing process to augment the unit during handling or to enable it to carry a structural load (ie lintel).

The side or face of a surface or moulding at right angles to the main face

The return of a wall surface into a door or window opening, normally at right angles to the main wall face.

Masonry of stone, brick or stucco with the joints between the blocks recessed with V-joints or other profiles imparting additional emphasis and visual strength to the wall.

manufacturing process giving components a slightly open textured face, similar to sawn quarried stone.

The drawing which the cast stone manufacturer submits for approval, showing the shape of pieces, exposed faces, jointing, anchoring, reinforcing and unit cross section.

The underside of a projecting element such as a cornice, or any flat underside.

A large-scale chamfer, such as a door or window reveal, wider at the wall surface than at the frame.

A cast stone window sill that fits within the masonry opening.

Allowable deviation from specified dimensions.

A finish obtained by texturing the cast stone eg bush hammering or needling

A finish normally given to the back or unformed side of cast stone. This finish may look slightly different than the moulded sides of the piece.

Any face or part of a cast stone unit visible after completion of works. Visual Faces are Exposed Faces but not necessarily vice versa.

manufacturing process giving a close face texture and allowing large components and those with complex reinforcements to be produced.